A selection of helpful resources below...

The following research is provided in support of the noted benefits of fulvic. If the summaries here ignite your curiosity feel free to click on the links provided to access the full script or, where the paper is not freely available, the option to purchase a copy.

Effect of humic substances on mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation

Fulvic and humic acids were shown to support respiration in rat liver mitochondria at certain concentrations, with low molecular weight fulvic fractions showing more significant results than high molecular weight humic material. Both compounds also increased the efficiency of the oxidative phosphorylation process, whereby mitochondria synthesize ATP, providing energy to vital cellular processes. 

-       Visser, SA, 1987, Effect of humic substances on mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, The Science of the Total Environment, 62, 347-354


Fulvic acid: modifier of metal-ion chemistry

This article details the chemistry of fulvic acid, highlighting fulvic acid’s wide variety of aromatic and aliphatic structures, each of which bear many oxygen-containing functional groups. These functional groups can add or remove protons in solution, allowing it to behave as a polyelectrolyte and take part in numerous chemical reactions. 

-       Saar, RA and Weber, JH, 1982, Fulvic acid: modifier of metal-ion chemistry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 16, 9.